Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 303:58

Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0

According to technology expert and entrepreneur Nova Spivack[1], the development of the Web moves in 10-year cycles. In the Web's first decade, most of the development focused on the back end, or infrastructure, of the Web. This is often referred to as Web 1.0. Programmers created the protocols and code languages we use to make Web pages. In the second decade, focus shifted to the front end and the era of Web 2.0 began. Now people use Web pages as platforms for other applications. They also create mashups and experiment with ways to make Web experiences more interactive. We're at the end of the Web 2.0 cycle now. The next cycle will be Web 3.0, and the focus will shift back to the back end. Programmers will refine the Internet's infrastructure to support the advanced capabilities of Web 3.0 browsers. Once that phase ends, we'll enter the era of Web 4.0. Focus will return to the front end, and we'll see thousands of new programs that use Web 3.0 as a foundation [source: Nova Spivack].[1]

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Past: Web 1.0Edit

Think of Web 1.0 as a library. You can use it as a source of information, but you can't contribute to or change the information in any way [2]

Present: Web 2.0Edit

Web 2.0 is more like a big group of friends and acquaintances. You can still use it to receive information but you also contribute to the conversation and make it a richer experience [2]. In the beginning stages of the formation of the World Wide Web, users were limited to passive viewing of online content.  The term "Web 2.0" was coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci as people became increasingly able to interact and cooperate online through social media platforms, virtual communities and user-generated content. Some examples include blogs, wikis, social networks, forums, and media sharing sites. Web 2.0 technologies encompass a variety of different meanings that include an increased emphasis on user generated content, data and content sharing, collaborative effort, new ways of interacting with Web-based applications, and the use of the Web as a social platform for generating, repositioning and consuming content.[3] "Web 2.0" refers to a perceived second generation of Web development and design that facilitates communications and secures information sharing, interoperability, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of Web-based communities, hosted services, and applications; such as social networking sites, video-sharing sites[LINK], blogs, wikis, and folksonomies[4]" (Web 2.0, 2009). The emphasis on user participation also known as the "Read/Write" Web - characterizes most people's definitions of Web 2.0. [3]

Characteristics of Web 2.0Edit

  • The ability for visitors to make changes to Web pages: Amazon allows visitors to post product reviews. Using an online form, a visitor can add information to Amazon's pages that future visitors will be able to read. [2]
  • Using Web pages to link people to other users: social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace are popular in part because they make it easy for users to find each other and keep in touch.[2]
  • Fast and efficient ways to share content: YouTube is the perfect example. A YouTube member can create a video and upload it to the site for others to watch in less than an hour.[2]
  • New ways to get information: Today, Internet surfers can subscribe to a Web page's Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds and receive notifications of that Web page's updates as long as they maintain an Internet connection.[2]
  • Expanding access to the Internet beyond the computer: Many people access the Internet through devices like cell phones or video game consoles; before long, some experts expect that consumers will access the Internet through television sets and other devices.[2]

Current Problems with Web 2.0Edit

1) High recall and low precision. The most relevant pages are retrieved, but so are many other irrelevant or semi-relevant pages[5]

2) Low recall:  Sometimes we don’t get the answer we want at all[5]

3) Results are too vocabulary-sensitive: Semantically similar words do not return similar results[5]

4) Results return only single Web pages. We must travel to separate places, extract information, then bring together a solid body of information. This requires several queries[5]

5) Search engines are not integrated with software; they often stand isolated.[5]

"Therefore the term information retrieval, used in assocation with search engines[LINK], is somewhat midleading; location finder might be a more appropriate term." The semantic meaning behind what information we with to retrieve is "not machine-accessible." The computer cannot interpret sentences the way humans can [5].

Future: Web 3.0 & BeyondEdit

Some Internet experts believe we are moving towards the next generation of the web, Web 3.0.  Also referred to as "The Semantic Web" Web 3.0 is predicted to solve many of the problems that users experience when browsing the Internet. Using the same pattern as the above Wikipedia definition, Web 3.0 could be defined as: “Web 3.0, a phrase coined by John Markoff of the New York Times in 2006, refers to a supposed third generation of Internet-based services that collectively comprise what might be called ‘the intelligent Web’ — such as those using semantic web, microformats, natural language search, data mining, machine learning, recommendation agents, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, machine learning technologies — which emphasize machine-facilitated understanding of information in order to provide a more productive and intuitive user experience.”Web 3.0 might be defined as a third-generation of the Web enabled by the convergence of several key emerging technology trends:

  • Ubiquitous Connectivity
    • Broadband adoption
    • Mobile Internet access
    • Mobile devices
  • Network Computing
    • Software-as-a-service business models
    • Web services interoperability
    • Distributed computing (P2P, grid computing, hosted "cloud computing" server farms such as Amazon S3)
  • Open Technologies
    • Open APIs and protocols
    • Open data formats
    • Open-source software platforms
    • Open data (Creative Commons, Open Data License, etc.)
  • Open Identity
    • Open identity (OpenID)
    • Open reputation
    • Portable identity and personal data (for example, the ability to port your user account and search history from one service to another)
  • The Intelligent Web
    • Semantic Web technologies (RDF, OWL, SWRL, SPARQL, Semantic application platforms, and statement-based datastores such as triplestores, tuplestores and associative databases)
    • Distributed databases - or what I call "The World Wide Database" (wide-area distributed database interoperability enabled by Semantic Web technologies)
    • Intelligent applications (natural language processing, machine learning, machine reasoning, autonomous agents)

Beyond Web 3.0Edit

The Web will evolve into a three-dimensional environment. Rather than a Web 3.0, we'll see a Web 3D. Combining virtual reality elements with the persistent online worlds of massively multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMORPGs), the Web could become a digital landscape that incorporates the illusion of depth. You'd navigate the Web either from a first-person perspective or through a digital representation of yourself called an avatar (to learn more about an avatar's perspective, read How the Avatar machine Works).

The Web will build on developments in distributed computing and lead to true artificial intelligence. In distributed computing, several computers tackle a large processing job. Each computer handles a small part of the overall task. Some people believe the Web will be able to think by distributing the workload across thousands of computers and referencing deep ontologies. The Web will become a giant brain capable of analyzing data and extrapolating new ideas based off of that information.

The Web will extend far beyond computers and cell phones. Everything from watches to television sets to clothing will connect to the Internet. Users will have a constant connection to the Web, and vice versa. Each user's software agent will learn more about its respective user by electronically observing his or her activities. This might lead to debates about the balance between individual privacy and the benefit of having a personalized Web browsing experience. The Web will merge with other forms of entertainment until all distinctions between the forms of media are lost. Radio programs, television shows and feature films will rely on the Web as a delivery system.

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  1. 1.0 1.1 N,Spivack.(2006) Web 3.0:the Third Generation Website is Coming. Cited from:
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  Strickland,J.(n.d). How Web 3.0 Will Work. HowStuffWorks. Retrieval March 12, 2014, fron
  3. 3.0 3.1 A,Harris. A, Rea. Web 2.0 and Virtual World Technologies:A Growing Impact on IS Education. Journal of Information Systems Education, Vol.(20)2 
  4. Fields, Kennedth(2007) "Ontologies categories, folksonomies: an organized language of sound." Cambridge.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Antoniou, G., & Harmelen, F.(2008) A Semantic Web Primer (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

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